Romantic literature in English - Wikipedia


romantic period in literature

The Romantic period in English literature began in the late s and lasted through the mids. Romanticism focuses on the emotional side of human nature, individualism, the beauty of the natural world and the simplicity of common people. Romantic authors value sentimental, heartfelt feelings and . English literature: The Romantic Period. At the turn of the century, fired by ideas of personal and political liberty and of the energy and sublimity of the natural world, artists and intellectuals sought to break the bonds of 18th-century convention. Although the works of. Thus Romanticism is the historical period of literature in which modern readers most begin to see a reflection of themselves and their own modern conflicts and desires. The Romantic period has passed, but its styles and values still thrive today in popular forms and familiar attitudes, e.g.

English literature - The Romantic period |

Romanticism was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century. Scholars regard the publishing of William Wordsworth 's and Samuel Coleridge 's Lyrical Ballads in as probably romantic period in literature beginning of the movement, and the crowning of Queen Victoria in as its end. The Romantic period was one of major social change in England, due to depopulation of the countryside and rapid development of overcrowded industrial cities that took place roughly between and The movement of so many people in England was the result of two forces: the Agricultural Revolutionwhich involved enclosures that drove workers and their families off the land, and the Industrial Revolution which provided them employment, "in the factories and mills, operated by machines driven by steam-power ".

The Romantic movement in English literature of the early 19th century has its roots in 18th-century poetry, the Gothic novel and the novel of sensibility. The sentimental novel or " novel of sensibility " is a genre which developed during the second half of the 18th century.

It celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment, sentimentalismand sensibility. Sentimentalism, which is to be distinguished from sensibility, was a fashion in both poetry and prose fiction which began in reaction to the rationalism of the Augustan Age. Sentimental novels relied on emotional response both from their readers and characters.

Scenes of distress and tenderness are common, and the plot is arranged to advance emotions rather than action. The result is a valorization of "fine feeling", romantic period in literature, displaying the characters as models for refined, sensitive emotional effect. The ability to display feelings was thought to show character and experience, and to shape social life and relations.

The poor condition of workers, the new class conflicts and the pollution of the environment led to a reaction against urbanism and industrialization, and a new emphasis on the beauty and value of nature. In the late 18th century, romantic period in literature, Horace Walpole 's novel The Castle of Otranto created the Gothic fiction genre, that combines elements of horror and romance.

The pioneering gothic novelist Ann Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of the gothic villain which developed into the Byronic hero. Her most popular and influential work The Mysteries of Udolpho is frequently cited as the archetypal Gothic novel, romantic period in literature. Vathek by William Beckfordand The Monk by Matthew Lewiswere further notable early works in both the gothic and horror literary genres. The first short stories in the United Kingdom were gothic tales like Richard Romantic period in literature 's "remarkable narrative" The Poisoner of Montremos The physical landscape is prominent in the poetry of this period.

The Romantics, and especially Wordsworth, are often described as 'nature poets'. However, these 'nature poems' reveal wider concerns in that they are often meditations on "an emotional problem or personal crisis".

The poet, painter, and printmaker William Blake — was an early writer of his kind. Largely disconnected from the major streams of the literature of his time, Blake was generally unrecognized during his lifetime, but is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age.

Considered mad by contemporaries for his idiosyncratic views, Blake is held in high regard by later critics for his expressiveness and creativity, and for the philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work. Among his most important works are Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience "and profound romantic period in literature difficult 'prophecies' " such as Visions of the Daughters of AlbionThe First Book of UrizenMilton —? After Blake, among the earliest Romantics were the Lake Poetsa small group of friends, including William Wordsworth — romantic period in literature, Samuel Taylor Coleridge —Robert Southey — and journalist Thomas de Quincey — However, at the time Walter Scott — was the most famous poet.

Scott achieved immediate success with his long narrative poem The Lay of the Last Minstrel infollowed by the full epic poem Marmion in Both were set in the distant Scottish past. The early Romantic poets brought a new form of emotionalism and introspection, romantic period in literature, and their emergence is marked by the first romantic manifesto in English literature, the "Preface" to Lyrical Ballads In it Wordsworth discusses what he sees as the elements of a new type of poetry, one based on the romantic period in literature language of men", and which avoids the poetic diction of much 18th-century poetry.

Here, Wordsworth gives his famous definition of poetry, as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" which "takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility. Coleridge is also especially remembered for " Kubla Khan ", " Frost at Midnight ", "Dejection: an Ode", " Christabel ", romantic period in literature, as well as the major prose work Biographia Literaria.

His critical work, especially on Shakespearewas highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture, romantic period in literature. The Prelude was begun in but published posthumously in Wordsworth's poetry is noteworthy for how he "inverted the traditional hierarchy of poetic genres, subjects, and style by elevating humble and rustic life and the plain [ Robert Southey — was another of the so-called " Lake Poets ", and Poet Laureate for 30 years from to his death in Although his fame has been long eclipsed by that of his contemporaries and friends William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

Thomas De Quincey — was an English essayistbest known for his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater[25] an autobiographical account of his laudanum use and its effect on his life. William Hazlitt —friend of both Coleridge and Wordsworth, is another important essayist at this time, though today he romantic period in literature best known for his literary criticism, especially Characters of Shakespeare's Plays — Byron, however, was still influenced by 18th-century satirists and was, perhaps the least 'romantic' of the three, preferring "the brilliant wit of Pope to what he called the 'wrong poetical system' of his Romantic contemporaries".

Goethe called Byron "undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century". The poem contains elements thought to be autobiographical, as Byron generated some of the storyline from experience gained during his travels between and This short story was inspired by the life of Lord Byron and his poem The Giaour Shelley's early profession of atheism, in the tract "The Necessity of Atheism", led to his expulsion from Oxford, [33] and branded him as a radical agitator and thinker, setting an early pattern of marginalization and ostracism from the intellectual and political circles of his time.

Similarly, Shelley's essay romantic period in literature Defense of Poetry" displayed a radical view of poetry, in which poets act as "the unacknowledged legislators of the world," because, of all of artists, they best perceive the undergirding structure of society.

Works like Queen Mab reveal Shelley "as the direct heir to the French and British revolutionary intellectuals of the s. It is perhaps romantic period in literature first modern statement of the principle of nonviolent protest, romantic period in literature. Though John Keats shared Byron and Shelley's radical politics, "his best poetry is not political", [39] but is especially noted for its sensuous music and imagery, along with a concern with material beauty and the transience of life.

Another important poet in this period was John Clare —Clare was the son of a farm labourer, who came to be known for his celebratory representations of the English countryside and his lamentation for the changes taking place in rural England. No one has ever written more powerfully of nature, of a rural childhood, and of the alienated and unstable self". George Crabbe — was an English poet who, during the Romantic period, wrote "closely observed, romantic period in literature, realistic portraits of rural life [ Female writers were increasingly active in all genres throughout the 18th century, and by the s women's poetry was flourishing.

Other women poets include Mary Alcock c. More interest has been shown in recent years in Dorothy WordsworthWilliam's sister, who "was modest about her writing abilities, [but] she produced poems of her own; and her journals and travel narratives certainly provided inspiration for her brother. In the past decades there has been substantial scholarly and critical work done on women poets of this period, both to make them available in print or online, and second, to assess them and position them within the literary tradition.

Mary Shelley — is remembered as the author of Frankenstein The plot of this is said to have come from a waking dream she had, in the company of Percy Shelley, Lord Byron, and John Polidori, following a conversation about galvanism and the feasibility of returning a corpse or assembled body parts to life, and on the experiments of the 18th-century natural philosopher and poet Erasmus Darwinromantic period in literature, who was said to have animated dead matter.

Jane Austen 's works critique the novels of sensibility of the second half of the 18th century and are part of the transition to 19th-century realism.

She reveals not only the difficulties women faced in her day, but romantic period in literature what was expected of men and of the careers they had to follow. This she does romantic period in literature wit and humour and with endings where all characters, good or bad, receive exactly what they deserve.

Her work brought her little personal fame and only a few positive reviews during her lifetime, but the publication in of her nephew's A Memoir of Jane Austen introduced her to a wider public, and by the s she had become accepted as a major writer.

The second half of the 20th century saw a proliferation of Austen scholarship and the emergence of a Janeite fan culture. Byron, Keats and Shelley all wrote for the stage, but with little success in England, with Shelley's The Cenci perhaps the best work produced, though that was not played in a public theatre in England until a century after his death.

Byron's plays, along with dramatizations of his poems and Scott's novels, were much more popular on the Continent, and especially in France, romantic period in literature, and through these versions several were turned into operas, many still performed today. If contemporary poets had little success on the stage, the period was a legendary one for performances of Shakespeareand went some way to restoring his original texts and removing the Augustan "improvements" to them.

Wales had its own Romantic movement, especially in Welsh literature which was rarely translated or known outside Wales. The "poetry and bardic vision" of Edward Williamsbetter known by his bardic name Iolo Morganwgbear the hallmarks of Romanticism. Wordsworth and Welsh Romanticism. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, James Macpherson was the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation.

Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossianhe published "translations" that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics.

Fingalwritten inwas speedily translated into many European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend have been credited, more than any single work, with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German literature, romantic period in literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

Robert Burns — was a pioneer of the Romantic movement, and after his death he became a cultural icon in Scotland. As well as writing poems, Burns also collected folk songs from across Scotland, romantic period in literature, often revising or adapting them.

His Poems, chiefly in the Scottish Dialect was published in The most important British novelist at the beginning of the early 19th century was Sir Walter Scottwho was not only a highly successful novelist, but "the greatest single influence on fiction in the 19th century [ The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th century.

American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe. Like the Europeans, the American Romantic period in literature demonstrated a high level of moral enthusiasm, commitment to individualism and the unfolding of the self, romantic period in literature, an emphasis on intuitive perception, and the assumption that the natural world was inherently good, while human society was filled with corruption.

The movement appealed to the revolutionary spirit of America as well as to those longing to break free of the strict religious traditions of early settlement. The Romantics rejected rationalism and religious intellect. It appealed to those in opposition of Calvinism, which includes the belief that the destiny of each individual is preordained.

Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving 's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van WinkleThere are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books. From the prolific and popular novelist James Romantic period in literature Cooper — began publishing his historical romances of frontier and Indian life, to create a unique form of American literature.

Cooper is best remembered for his numerous sea-stories and the historical novels known as the Leatherstocking Taleswith their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by " noble savages ", exemplified by Uncasfrom The Last of the Mohicans show the influence of Rousseau 's —78 philosophy.

Edgar Allan Poe 's tales of the macabre that first appeared in the early s, romantic period in literature, and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home. By the midth century, the pre-eminence of literature from the British Isles began to be challenged by writers from the former American colonies, romantic period in literature. This included one of the creators of the new genre of the short story, and inventor of the detective story Edgar Allan Poe — A major influence on American writers at this time was Romanticism.

The Romantic movement gave rise to New England Transcendentalismwhich portrayed a less restrictive relationship between God and Universe.

The publication of Ralph Waldo Emerson 's essay Nature is usually considered the watershed moment at which transcendentalism became a major cultural movement.

The new philosophy presented the individual with a more personal relationship with God. Transcendentalism and Romanticism appealed to Americans in a similar fashion, for both privileged feeling over reason, individual freedom of expression over the restraints of tradition and custom. It often involved a rapturous response to nature. It encouraged the rejection of harsh, rigid Calvinism, and promised a new blossoming of American culture.

The romantic American novel developed fully with Nathaniel Hawthorne 's — The Scarlet Lettera stark drama of a woman cast out of her community for committing adultery, romantic period in literature. Hawthorne's fiction had a profound impact on his friend Herman Melville — In Moby-Dickan adventurous whaling voyage becomes the vehicle for examining such themes as obsession, the nature of evil, romantic period in literature, and human struggle against the elements.


Romancticism - Literature Periods & Movements


romantic period in literature


The greatest actor of the period, Edmund Kean, restored the tragic ending to King Lear; Coleridge said that, “Seeing him act was like reading Shakespeare by flashes of lightning.” Wales. Wales had its own Romantic movement, especially in Welsh literature (which was rarely translated or known outside Wales). English literature: The Romantic Period. At the turn of the century, fired by ideas of personal and political liberty and of the energy and sublimity of the natural world, artists and intellectuals sought to break the bonds of 18th-century convention. Although the works of. Thus Romanticism is the historical period of literature in which modern readers most begin to see a reflection of themselves and their own modern conflicts and desires. The Romantic period has passed, but its styles and values still thrive today in popular forms and familiar attitudes, e.g.